About EMF / 5G

What is EMF?

EMF is short for electromagnetic fields or sometimes known as electromagnetic radiation (EMR) or electromagnetic energy (EME). EMFs are typically grouped into one of two categories by their frequency and usually represented in the Elec-tromagnetic Spectrum (Fig 1).

  • Non-ionizing: low-level radiation which is generally perceived as harmless to humans since it cannot fields which cannot break down molecular bonds within cells and tissues.
  • Ionizing: high-level radiation which has the potential for cellular and DNA damage since it carries large quantities of energy that they can ionise particles of matter and consequently break down the chemical bonds between molecules.

Electromagnetic fields arise from different sources, some natural and some man-made.

  • Natural sources: EMFs can be created in nature, for instance, when electric charges accumulated in clouds break apart in electric bursts in the form of lightning. Other natural sources are the Earth’s Magnetic Field (this makes a compass point north), or visible light.
  • Artificial sources of magnetic fields: EMFs may be created artificially. For example, electrical appliances (such as vacuum cleaners, hair-dryers, refrigerators) or Radio Communications Devices (such as AM / FM radio and television, emergency service radio, –air traffic control, cordless phones, remote controls, mobile phones, Wi-Fi modems

FIG 1. Electromagnetic Spectrum (source: https://www.mpoweruk.com)

What is 5G?

5G is the new generation of cellular communication technologies. It is the 5th ge-neration of mobile networks, a significant evolution of todays 4G LTE networks.
5G is being designed to meet the very large growth in data and connectivity of today’s modern society, the internet of things with billions of connected devices, and tomo-rrow’s innovations. In technical terms 5G delivers improved data rates (up to 100 times faster than current mobile networks)
5G uses radio waves or radio frequency (RF) energy to transmit and receive voice and data connecting our communities.
5G will initially operate in conjunction with existing 4G networks before evolving to fully standalone networks in subsequent releases and coverage expansions.

How does it work?

5G networks will use a combination of smart antenna technologies and small cells to deliver radio signals where they are needed. Conventional antennas provide coverage similar to how a floodlight illuminates a wide area. New 5G smart anten-nas act like flashlights, providing coverage where it is needed and reducing unwan-ted signals. Smart antennas increase capacity and improve efficiency. Small cells are currently used by mobile networks to provide localised coverage and/or capaci-ty and their use will expand with 5G. They may be mounted on street lights or inside buildings where over 80% of mobile usage occurs.